After the Sarkozy election, a new attempt in favour of Arab-French students was made, but Sarkozy did not gain enough political support to change the French constitution. The rise in geographic, economic and demographic diversity of a student population suggests that the plan's focus on structural determinants of disadvantage yields broad diversity dividends.
Tamils' knowledge of English and education came from the very American missionary activity by overseas Christians that the British were concerned will anger the Sinhalese and destroy their trading relationships, so they sent them to the Tamil areas instead to teach, thinking it would have no consequences and due to their small numbers.
When considering directors with seven or more directorships, all of them are women. This may equate to lowering minimum requirements for the National University Entrance Examination, which is a mandatory exam for all students to enter university.
France[ edit ] No distinctions based on race, religion or sex are allowed under the French Constitution. All appointments of males as directors will be invalid as long as the quota is not met, and monetary penalties may apply for other directors.
This would hardly satisfy critics of affirmative action -- notably Charles Murray, co-author of ''The Bell Curve'' -- who argue that asking poorly prepared minorities to compete in the very best colleges reinforces racial stereotypes.
Kane throws cold water on the idea that it would serve as a substitute for racial preference.