Psychological theories for explaining crime
It is important note that, but for the disapproval of the Catholic church, such sterilization laws would also have come into effect in both Ontario and Quebec.
Biological and psychological theories of crime
However, this policy is expensive and tax payers may not support it. These factors include having an emotionally unstable parent, parental rejection, lack of love during childhood and inconsistent discipline. It is hypothesized that alcohol and drugs can impact violence in three ways. Cirincione, Carmen, H. However, rather than focus on the biological basis of crime, psychologists focus on how mental processes impact individual propensities for violence. The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. A common assumption is that offending is essentially rational, and that people will offend if they think that the expected benefits will outweigh the expected costs. Delinquency and Criminals: Their Making and Unmaking. Similar policies might follow with habitual criminal offenders based on the biological theories of criminality. Many have argued, for example, that the physiological impact of substance use serves to reduce social inhibitions and thus frees or enables people to act on their violent impulses. The Re-emergence of the IQ-Violence Debate In a controversial article that appeared in the late s, Travis Hirschi and Michael Hindelang reviewed existing data on the intelligence-crime relationship and concluded that IQ is a stronger predictor of crime and violence than many other demographic characteristics are — including social class see Hirschi and Hindelang, The most common disorders among youth include depression, substance abuse and conduct disorder Osenblatt, Lawrence Kohlberg refined the work of Jean Piaget, proposing three levels of moral development.
Kasen, J. Hence, such people found it hard to defer gratification and their decisions to offend were insufficiently influenced by the possible future painful consequences of offending. Mathias, R. Hypotheses derived from the three theories were tested in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development Juby and Farringtonwhich is a prospective longitudinal survey of over four hundred London males from age eight to age forty.
Psychological theories of crime and delinquency
The policy mandating convicted sex offenders to be monitored over their lifetime and certain restrictions placed on them is a result of the acknowledgment of a biological predisposition to engage in this crime and therefore traditional forms of treatment or remediation do not appear to be effective. According to psychoanalytic theories, offending resulted from a weak ego or a weak superego, both of which followed largely from low attachment between children and parents. Skodol and J. Lykken, David. Lee Robins popularized the theory that offending is one element of a larger syndrome of antisocial behavior, including heavy drinking, drug-taking, reckless driving, educational problems, employment problems, difficulties in relationships, and so on. Rowell Huesmann and Leonard Eron put forward a cognitive script model in which aggressive behavior depends on stored behavioral repertoires cognitive scripts that have been learned during early development. Criminality is viewed from the point of view of the social construction of criminality and its social causes. Langton, Calvin and W. Delinquent behavior is caused by imbalances between the id, ego and superego. One of the most popular theories suggests that impulsiveness reflects deficits in the executive functions of the brain, located in the frontal lobes Moffitt. In fact, the majority of people convicted of violent crimes in Canada and the US do not have a psychopathic personality see reviews in Edens et al. Hence, it seems likely that research inspired by the Eysenck theory mainly identifies the link between impulsiveness and offending. White, Helen Raskin. Indeed, major depression may be too crippling a disorder to permit someone to form intent and act out in a violent manner see Modestin et al. Englander, Elizabeth.
Antisocial tendencies can also be inhibited by empathy, which may develop as a result of parental warmth and loving relationships. Moreover, psychological science consists of several disciplines including biological psychology and social psychology, so psychological principles could be applied across all three domains.
Burton, R. Trauma theories suggest that the loss of a parent has a damaging effect on a child, most commonly because of the effect on attachment to the parent.
Finally, even if we accept previous research results at face value, intelligence-based explanations cannot begin to explain major patterns of criminal behaviour. Cruise and E. Juby, Heather, and Farrington, David P. Ross, Robert R. Because harsh forms of punishment do not appear to significantly decrease recidivism rates, other psychological principles have been applied.
Their theory suggested that people differ in their underlying criminal tendencies, and that whether a person chooses to commit a crime in any situation depends on whether the expected benefits of offending are considered to outweigh the expected costs.
based on 52 review